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TE74 TWO ROLLER MACHINE

( 기어,감속기, 압연롤러,롤러베어링,철도레일과 윤활유의

미끄럼구름 접촉 피로 시험기)--->최대 30kN 하중 적용 가능

 

TE74 TWO ROLLER MACHINE

                          

 

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   TWO ROLLER 타입 고속 구름 피로 시험 전용기

   

               

     Keywords:(시험분석 요소)

  • Cam shaft materials (캠 샤프 재질)
  • Contact resistance measurement (접촉 저항 측정을 통한 윤활막 형성과 윤활막 파괴현상 측정)
  • Delamination wear (박리 마모)
  • Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (탄성유체 윤활)
  • Gear lubricants (기어 윤활유 특성, 감속기 윤활유 특성)
  • Gear materials (기어, 감속기 재질)
  • gear surface treatments (기어 표면 처리)
  • Hertzian contact (헤르쯔 응력 피로 시험)
  • hypoid gear lubricants (차동기어 윤활 특성)
  • journal bearing(저어널 베어링 시험)
  • Pitting(피팅-피로 부식 마모)
  • Rolling (구름 접촉)
  • Rolling contact fatigue(구름 접촉 피로도 시험)
  • Rolling mill(압연 구름 롤러)
  • Scuffing(스커핑-기어의 Seizure(늘어붙음) 현상)
  • Smearing(스미어링-굴림기어의 Seizure(늘어붙음) 현상)
  • Slide/roll (미끄럼/구름 접촉 비율 제어)
  • Traction coefficient (견인 마찰계수)
  • White etching layers(표면에 급가속 급정지 등의 피로가 누적                          되어 발생 되는 층)

SCUFFING(스커핑) :

1.SEIZURE 라고도 한다. 베어링 등의 습동부에서는 윤활유가 부족하게 되면 마찰면이 용착하여 면이 거칠어지는 경우가 있으며, 극단적인 경우에는 고착하는 수도 있다. 이 현상을 늘어붙음이라고 한다. 기어의 늘어붙음은 스커핑(scuffing), 굴림기어의 늘어붙음은 스미어링(smearing)이라고 한다. 늘어붙음은 윤활유 부족에 의하여 기름막이 찢어지기 때문에 생기는 현상이다. 특히, 같은 종류의 금속을 마찰시키면 늘어붙음이 쉽게 일어나므로 습동부에 같은 종류의 금속을 사용하는 것은 피하는 것이 좋다.

2.높은 압력으로 접촉하여 통상 오일로 윤활하고 있는 금속 표면의 국부적인 융착에 의하여 발생되는 상처로서, 스코어링(scoring)이라고도 한다.
일반적으로 엔진의
피스톤 주위나 캠에서 볼 수 있는 상처를 스커핑, 기어에 의해서 발생하는 상처를 스코어링이라고 한다.         

HYPOID GEAR(하이포이드 기어);

차동 기어의 일종으로, 테이퍼 롤러 베어링에 지지된 구동 피니언 기어는 링 기어의 중심보다 낮게 설치되어 있는 스파이럴 기어(spiral gear) 형식이다.
피니언 기어를 크게 제작할 수 있어 접촉률이 크고 원활하게 회전하여 감속비도 크게 할 수 있는 장점이 있다.
또한 피니언 기어 위치를 낮출 수 있어
프로펠러 샤프트(추진축
) 위치와 차체의 지상고도 낮출 수 있다.

헤르츠 응력 시험(Hertzian contact)

접촉응력이라고도 불린다. 헤르츠응력이란 곡면을 이루는 두 개의 표면이 서로 밀어붙여졌을 때, 접촉부에 작용하는 집중응력을 말한다. 헤르츠응력은 기어 자체의 설계나 강도를 필요로 하는 기어기구를 설계하는 경우 맞물리는 기어의 치면 강도를 계산할 때 쓰인다. 또한, 톱니의 굽힘강도를 구하는 경우, 루이스의 식이라고 불리는 간편한 산정법도 있다. )-->Hertz의 접촉응력 은 구(ball)와 구(ball) 접촉시, (ball)와 평면접촉시, 구와 내접평면(ball on hallow spherical surface) 접촉시, 평면에 서로다른 반경을 가진 곡면(curved surface) 접촉시, roller roller 접촉시, roller와 평면의 접촉시 응력으로 구분할 수 있습니다. 기어의 면압강도는 roller roller 접촉시 응력 입니다.

 

TE 74 TWO ROLLER MACHINE

General Description:

The TE 74 Two Roller Machine is for the study of traction, wear and rolling contact fatigue under conditions of heavily loaded, lubricated, pure rolling and rolling and sliding. The machine incorporates two motors, one to provide the input power and one to absorb the transmitted power.

To achieve the necessary high loads with small diameter rollers, hence high contact pressures, the test rollers our mounted on shafts with bearings on either side, in the “fully supported” configuration. As a consequence, spindle bearings are exposed to, and must run in, the test lubricant.

To achieve satisfactory performance in line contact, the mounting/loading arrangement has adjustable alignment, with the upper specimen shaft carried on a pivoted arm and with a spherical bearing incorporated in the pivot axle. Axial alignment is achieved by indexing the pivot axle. Loading is achieved by means of a servo controlled pneumatic bellows actuator with force transducer feedback.

The lower specimen shaft is carried in fixed bearings. The drive to the lower roller incorporates an in-line torque transducer for measuring the input torque to the system. It should be noted that the traction measurement is thus subject to parasitic losses associated with the roller spindle bearings. These losses are small but may be quantified by running the unit under conditions of zero slip at different speeds and temperatures.

A vibration sensor is provided for detecting surface failure. The upper roller housing is electrically insulated and slip rings are provided on the roller shafts for electrical contact resistance measurement.

A lubricant service module is fitted as standard incorporating a sump tank with immersion heater, delivery pump, scavenge pump and oil to water heat exchangers for cooling.

The motors are a.c. and powered by conventional vector drives allowing precise control of speed. Power is re-circulated electrically via a common d.c. link between the drives, upstream of the frequency inverter stages. Total power requirement is thus limited to the system losses. For control purposes, one drive is designated as master with the second drive deriving its speed set point, adjusted for the required slip ratio, from the master drive.

Design Variants:

Two versions of the machine are available. The TE 74S (standard capacity) incorporates two 5.5 kW motors, a shaft centre distance of 40 mm and 12 kN loading system, whereas the TE 74H (high capacity) has two 30 kW motors, a shaft centre distance of 70 mm and 30 kN loading system.

Drive Configuration:

The lower roller spindle is connected to an in-line torque transducer via a cardan shaft; the transducer is connected to a lay shaft by a coupling and the lay shaft connected to the motor by pulley and timing belt. The upper roller spindle is connected to a lay shaft by a cardan shaft and the lay shaft connected to its motor by pulley and belt drive.

Control and Data Acquisition:

The TE 74 has PC based sequence programmable control and data acquisition. This is provided by an integrated Serial Link Interface Module and COMPEND 2000 software running on a host PC, operating under Windows. Data is stored to hard disc in standard spread sheet compatible file formats (.csv or .tsv).

Tests are defined by a sequence of steps, each step containing set-point, data recording rates and alarm level information. Set-points may be adjusted by step change or ramp. The test sequence is followed unless interrupted by the operator or an alarm. Set-points may also be adjusted manually using on screen toggles.

Controlled Parameters:

Motor speed

Motor speed difference-->(미끄럼/구름 비율 PC에 의한 자동제어 가능)

Applied load

Test fluid temperature

Test duration

Measured Parameters

Motor speed

Motor speed difference

Applied load

Transmitted torque

Lubricant inlet temperature

Test bath outlet temperature

Vibration sensor output

Electrical contact resistance

Technical Specification - TE 74S:

Type: Circulating power
Fully supported roller
Spindles adjacent
Fixed shaft centre distance
Contact: Line or point contact
Test Conditions: Pure Rolling
Sliding/Rolling
Environment: Lubricated
Standard Roller Diameters: 40 mm on 40 mm
Maximum Roller Difference: 65 mm on 15 mm
Maximum Roller Thickness: 12 mm
Shaft Centre Distance: 40 mm
Maximum Load: 12 kN
Roller Temperature: Ambient to 150°C
Motor Power: 5.5 kW
Motor Base Speed: 1500 rpm
Motor Maximum Speed: 3000 rpm
Drive Ratio: 1:1
Maximum Roller Speed: 3000 rpm
Maximum Torque at 1500 rpm: 35 Nm
Maximum Torque at 3000 rpm: 17.5 Nm
Maximum Surface Speed (40 mm Roller): 6.28 ms-1
Drive Ratio: 2:1
Maximum Roller Speed: 6000 rpm
Maximum Torque at 3000 rpm: 17.5 Nm
Maximum Torque at 6000 rpm: 8.75 Nm
Maximum Surface Speed (40 mm Roller): 12.56 ms-1
Drive Ratio: 1:2
Maximum Roller Speed: 1500 rpm
Maximum Torque at 750 rpm: 70 Nm
Maximum Torque at 1500 rpm: 35 Nm
Maximum Surface Speed (40 mm Roller): 3.14 ms-1
Services:
Electricity: 380/415V, three phase plus neutral, 50/60 Hz, 15 kW
Clean, dry air: 4 cfm at 8 bar (120 psi)
Mains water and drain: 10 l/min (typical)

Operating Envelope – TE 74S:

Characteristic showing motor torque-speed characteristic (available torque) compared with roller generated torque, assuming traction coefficient of 0.1, with corresponding reduction in applied load. Note that the full load can be applied at full speed in pure rolling or under conditions where the traction coefficient is less than 0.07.

Assuming 40 mm diameter rollers and traction coefficient of 0.1, the maximum permissible load at maximum speed is 8.7 kN.
Flat Rollers 10 mm contact width
Lower Roller Upper Roller Load Contact Width Contact Pressure Contact Length
mm mm kN mm GPa mm
Diameter 40 40 12 10 2.05 0.746
Diameter 65 15 12 10 2.62 0.582
Flat Rollers 5 mm contact width
Lower Roller Upper Roller Load Contact Width Contact Pressure Contact Length
mm mm kN mm GPa mm
Diameter 40 40 12 5 2.90 1.055
Diameter 65 15 12 5 3.71 0.823
Crowned Rollers 4 GPa Contact Pressure
Lower Roller Upper Roller Load Contact Diameter
mm mm kN mm
Diameter 40 40 2.74 1.145
Crown Radius 20 20
Diameter 60 20 1.54 0.859
Crown Radius 30 10

Note that as the minimum specimen diameter is 15 mm, a diameter of greater than this is required for a crowned roller sample machined on a 15 mm shaft. The practical minimum diameter for a crowned roller is thus 20 mm.

Technical Specification - TE 74H:

Type: Circulating power
Fully supported roller
Spindles adjacent
Fixed shaft centre distance
Contact: Line or point contact
Test Conditions: Pure Rolling
Sliding/Rolling
Environment: Lubricated
Standard Roller Diameters: 70 mm on 70 mm
Maximum Roller Difference: 110 mm on 30 mm
Maximum Roller Thickness: 12 mm
Shaft Centre Distance: 70 mm
Maximum Load: 30 kN
Roller Temperature: Ambient to 150°C
Motor Power: 30 kW
Motor Base Speed: 1500 rpm
Motor Maximum Speed: 3000 rpm
Drive Ratio: 1:1
Maximum Roller Speed: 3000 rpm
Maximum Torque at 1500 rpm: 190 Nm
Maximum Torque at 3000 rpm: 95 Nm
Maximum Surface Speed (70 mm Roller): 11 ms-1
Drive Ratio: 2:1
Maximum Roller Speed: 6000 rpm
Maximum Torque at 3000 rpm: 95 Nm
Maximum Torque at 6000 rpm: 47.5 Nm
Maximum Surface Speed (70 mm Roller): 22 ms-1
Services:
Electricity: 380/415V, three phase plus neutral, 50/60 Hz, 75 kW
Clean, dry air: 4 cfm at 8 bar (120 psi)
Mains water and drain: 10 l/min (typical)

Operating Envelope – TE 74H:

Characteristic showing motor torque-speed characteristic (available torque) compared with roller generated torque, assuming traction coefficient of 0.1, with corresponding reduction in applied load. Note that the full load can be applied at full speed in pure rolling or under conditions where the traction coefficient is less than 0.08.

Assuming 70 mm diameter rollers and traction coefficient of 0.1, the maximum permissible load at maximum speed is 27.3 kN.
Flat Rollers 10 mm contact width
Lower Roller Upper Roller Load Contact Width Contact Pressure Contact Length
mm mm kN mm GPa mm
Diameter 70 70 30 10 2.44 1.56
Diameter 110 30 30 10 2.98 1.28
Flat Rollers 5 mm contact width
Lower Roller Upper Roller Load Contact Width Contact Pressure Contact Length
mm mm kN mm GPa mm
Diameter 70 70 30 5 3.46 2.21
Diameter 110 30 30 5 4.22 1.81
Crowned Rollers 4 GPa Contact Pressure
Lower Roller Upper Roller Load Contact Diameter
mm mm kN mm
Diameter 70 70 8.41 2.003
Crown Radius 35 35
Diameter 100 40 5.6 1.635
Crown Radius 50 20

Note that as the minimum specimen diameter is 30 mm, a diameter of greater than this is required for a crowned roller sample machined on a 30 mm shaft. The practical minimum diameter for a crowned roller is thus 40 mm.

 

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