Pulse Medical Instruments (PMI)는 작업자의 작업자의 육체적 상태를 안구를 통하여 분석하여 작업장의 안전과 생산성을 향상시키는 특수한 기술을 발전시켜왔읍니다. 이것은 작업자의 피로함,합법적인 약물복용 및 마약,알콜등 복합요소를 분석할 수 있습니다. 기본 모델은 FIT 2000과 FIT2500이며 각 기기의 특징은 아래와 같습니다.
장비의 측정원리 : 사람의 안구는 빛에 어떻게 반응하느냐에 따라, 피로도,약물,마약, 알콜등에 의한 원인의
신체 손상원인을 분석을 할 수 있음.
FIT모델의 핵심 기술은 빛에 대한 무의식적인 안구의 즉각적인 반응도를 측정하는 것으로,
작업자의 개인 ID를 입력하여, 반짝이는 광원에 30초동안 안구를 노출시켜, 안구의 반응도를
이에 따라, 정상적인 상태의 Base line 수치를 개인 ID에 입력하여, 작업작가 작업전에 안구
를 검사하여, 작업적합도를 판정하며,부적합시 원인 분석을 할 수 있음.
FIT 2000 Fitness-for-duty Screener- 30초 이내, 작업전 작업예정자의 피로도/약물/마약 복용/알콜중독등의
4가지 요소를 복합하여, 안구의 빛에 대한 반응도를 분석하여 신체손상수치를 데이터화하며, 작업적합 여부
분석함. 또한 이 수치는 혈중알콜농도와도 긴밀한 상관관계를 가지고 있으며,
추가 기능으로 작업자의 안구분석을 한 후 자동으로 스크린에서 작업자의 작업을 "GO/NO GO"로 판단 시킬 수
FIT 2500 Fatigue Analyzer- 작업자의 수면부족,생체리듬및 피로도를 분석하여 작업자의 피로도를 수치화하여
작업자의 피로도 및 작업가능여부 분석함. 초기 10여번 정도 반응도를 확인하여
작업자의 피로수치를 Base line으로 잡음. 주로 연구용으로 많이 사용.
Two of the FIT measurements-- 안구의 반응속도와 수축대기시간- 수면부족으로부터 피로도
수치를 정확히 판단함.
(saccadic velocity and constriction latency-are accurate
indicators of fatigue
from sleep deprivation and extended wakefulness.)
손상된 수치를 정확히 판단함.
(constriction amplitude and pupil diamter-are accurate indicators of impairment from medications and drugs. Alcohol affects all four measurments)
Individual baseline, can effectively
identify overall presence of impairing factors in combination.
By assessing how changes in Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) affect a person뭩 FIT Index,
the equipment can measure.
The FIT Index, a statistical roll-up of how a person뭩 real-time measurements compare to
his/her be set to thresholds that identify when a person is at higher risk of causing
an accident due to impairment.
과학적 입증 연구소 :
scientific validation has been performed by leading U.S.research
750,000 tests have been conducted to date at customers such as:
In a 30-second test, PMI- FIT technology makes key measurements of how a person뭩 eye reacts to light. Changes in the measurements have been shown to correlate significantly to the presence of different impairing factors. There are two models of the FIT technology: the FIT 2000 Fitness-for-duty Screener and the FIT 2500 Fatigue Analyzer.
The effectiveness and accuracy of FIT technology has been validated by a number of leading U.S. research laboratories for human impairment. To summarize their research:
A number of research studies have validated the accuracy and effectiveness of the FIT뭩 measurements:
•Partial sleep dose response study; Russo, Belenky, et al; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (1999)
•Continuous sleep deprivation study; Rowland, Krichmar, et al; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (1997)
•Extended wakefulness and FIT study; Stampi, Aguirre, et al; Institute for Circadian Physiology (1994)
•Controlled-dose FIT tests for marijuana; Pickworth, et al; Addiction Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Johns Hopkins University (1993)
•Controlled-dose FIT tests for cocaine; Addiction Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Johns Hopkins University (1993)
•Controlled-dose FIT tests for alcohol; Perrine, Mundt; VT Alcohol Research Center (1993)
In addition, a variety of research studies have incorporated the FIT measurements into their protocols in order to collect data on physiological changes under different conditions:
•Caffeine and sleep deprivation
study; Kamimori, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (1999)
The FIT 2000 Fitness-for-duty Screener cannot, by itself, determine whether an employee is too impaired to work hat depends on the specifics of each job. It can, however, identify when an employee is significantly less alert than usual,and thus at higher risk of causing an accident.
The FIT 2000 is set at a threshold to ensure spotting significantly impaired individuals.
The false positive rate for the FIT 2000 high-risk assessment--i.e., an unimpaired person receiving a positive reading--is between 1 in 1000 and 1 in 100,000.
The false negative rate depends
upon how one defines "impairment."
FIT technology is used in two basic ways:
a. Analytical studies
b. Impairment screening
Within these basic ways, there are many variations of how exactly customers have used this powerful technology. Please see "Landscape of Uses" for different ways customers have used FIT technology.
FIT can be used to "keep a finger on the pulse" of employee impairment and identify how changes in organizational policy affect alertness. (See "Research Protocols" for a sample of studies into whose protocols FIT technology has been written.)
The other major use of the FIT
technology is to ensure that, each day, employees are fit-for-duty.
PMI's technology can give a "go-/no-go" decision about
whether an employee should work a safety-sensitive job that day.
Landscape of different customer use options.
Impact of U.S. injury-related workplace accidents, 1997
•Costs to industry
- Wage and productivity losses $63 billion
- Medical costs $21 billion
- Other $44 billion
Total $128 billion
- Per death $890,000
- Per disabling injury $28,000
•Time lost 125 million days
(National Safety Council, 1998)
•Between 50% and 95% of injuries (depending on the industry) are due primarily to human error
•In addition, non-injury accidents and international operations generate further costs
•Beyond accidents, impaired employees reduce productivity and quality
|How Does It Operate
The eye tells the story: changes in how it reacts to light is a significant indicator of fatigue, drugs, medications, or alcohol acting on a person.
The heart of FIT technology is a tabletop device that permits an employee to self-administer a quick, non-invasive assessment test. The machine measures an employee's involuntary eye-reflex reactions to light.
To use the device, a person simply keys in his/her ID number and looks with one eye into the eyepiece. The person follows the blinking light for 30 seconds while the equipment measures how the person's eye reacts to the light.
FIT 2000 Fitness-For-Duty Screener
Fatigue, medications, drugs, and alcohol affect the eye differently. To capture the impact of all these factors, the FIT 2000 Fitness-For-Duty Screener makes four key eye measurements which correlate to the presence of these factors.
Each individual has his/her own profile for how the eye normally reacts to the light test. So, a baseline is set up for each individual. Each subsequent test compares the results against the individual's baseline.
To capture the cumulative effect of impairing factors, the device calculates a "FIT 2000 Impairment Index", a statistical roll-up of how a person's real-time measurements compare to his/her individual baseline.
In addition, if desired, a "go/no-go" function can screen for significantly impaired employees. Changes in the FIT 2000 Impairment Index have been correlated to Blood Alcohol Concentration. By spotting employees who exceed a certain Index threshold, a company can identify when a person may be at high-risk of causing an accident.
While the FIT 2000 is highly effective
at identifying impairment, it does not attempt to identify cause
- a significant plus for employees sensitive to privacy issues.
FIT 2500 Fatigue Analyzer
Sleep deprivation, circadian rhythms,
and extended wakefulness affect only selected aspects of an eye's
reaction to light. The FIT 2500 Fatigue Analyzer isolates
and analyzes only those eye measurements that correlate to such
The device calculates a "FIT
2500 Fatigue Index" a statistical roll-up of how a person's
real-time measurements compare to his/her individual baseline.
The FIT 2500 cannot make a determination
of overall fitness-for-duty, a crucial advantage when data is intended
for informational/research purposes only.
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